This software deals only with *systematic* encodings, in which
the *K* bits of **s** are copied unchanged to some subset of
the *N* bits of **x** (the *message bits*), and the
remaining *M=N-K* *check bits* of **x** are then set so
as to make the result a codeword. For a linear code, a systematic
encoding scheme always exists, for some choice of which bits of a
codeword are message bits. It is conventional to rearrange the order
of the bits in a codeword so that the message bits come first. The
first *K* columns of the *K* by *N* generator matrix
will then be the identity matrix.

However, this software does *not* assume that the message bits
come first, since different encoding methods prefer different
locations for the message bits. Instead, a vector of indexes of where
each message bit is located within a codeword is recorded in a file
along with a representation of the part of the generator matrix that
produces the check bits. More than one such generator matrix file can
be created for a single parity check file, in which the locations of
the message bits may be different. Decoding of a received message
into a codeword (with `decode`) does not depend on
knowing which are the message bits, though this does need to be known
in order to reconstruct the original message (with `extract`).

This software stores representations of generator matrices in files
in a format that is not human-readable (except by using the `print-gen` program). However, these
files *are* readable on a machine with a different architecture
than they were written on.

For simplicity of exposition, it will be assumed for the next few
paragraphs that the message bits are located at the *end* of the
codeword, so a codeword can be divided into *M* check bits,
**c**, followed by *K* message bits, **s**.

On the above assumption, the parity check matrix, **H**, can be divided
into an *M* by *M* matrix **A** occupying
the first *M* columns of **H** and an *M* by *K* matrix
**B** occupying the remaining columns of **H**. The requirement that
a codeword, **x**, satisfy all parity checks (ie, that **Hx**=**0**)
can then be written as

Provided thatAc+Bs=0

c=A^{-1}Bs

The equation **c** = **A**^{-1}**Bs**
defines what the check bits should be, but actual computation of these
check bits can be done in several ways, three of which are implemented
in this software. Each method involves a different representation of
the generator matrix. (Note that none of these methods involves the
explicit representation of the matrix **G** mentioned above.)

In the *dense representation*, the *M* by *K* matrix
**A**^{-1}**B** is computed, and stored
in a dense format (see the dense modulo-2
matrix package). A message is encoded by multiplying the
source bits, **s**, by this matrix to obtain the required check bits.

In the *mixed representation*, the *M* by *M* matrix
**A**^{-1} is computed and stored in a dense
format, and the *M* by *K* matrix **B**, the right
portion of the parity check matrix, is also stored, in a sparse format
(see the sparse modulo-2 matrix package).
To encode a message, the source vector **s** is first multiplied on
the left by **B**, an operation which can be done very quickly if
**B** is sparse (as it will be for LDPC codes). The result is then
multiplied on the left by **A**^{-1}. If
*M*<*K*, the total time may be less than when using the
dense representation above.

The *sparse representation* goes further, and avoids
explicitly computing **A**^{-1}, which tends
to be dense even if **H** is sparse. Instead, a *LU
decomposition* of **A** is found, consisting of a lower
triangular matrix **L** and an upper triangular matrix **U** for
which **LU**=**A**. The effect of multiplying **Bs**=**z** by
**A**^{-1} can then be obtained by

SolvingBoth of these operations will be fast ifLy=zforyusing forward substitution.

SolvingUc=yforcusing backward substitution.

make-genpchk-file gen-file methodwhereis one of the following:methodsparse [ first | mincol | minprod ] [abandon-num abandon-when] dense [other-gen-file] mixed [other-gen-file]

Finds a generator matrix for the code whose parity check matrix is
in ` pchk-file`, and writes a representation of this
generator matrix to

All representations include a specification for how the columns of
the parity check matrix should be re-ordered so that the message bits
come last. References to columns of the parity check matrix below
refer to their order after this reordering. For the *dense* and
*mixed* representations, an ` other-gen-file` may be
specified, in which case the ordering of columns will be the same as
the ordering stored in that file (which must produce a non-singular

The *dense* representation consists of a dense representation
of the matrix **A**^{-1}**B**, where
**A** is the matrix consisting of the first *M* columns (after
reordering) of the parity check matrix, and **B** is the remaining
columns. If **H** contains redundant rows, there is an additional
reordering of columns of **A** in order create the same effect as
if the redundant rows came last.

The *mixed* representation consists of a dense representation
of the matrix **A**^{-1}, where **A** is
the matrix consisting of the first *M* columns (after reordering)
of the parity check matrix. The remaining columns of the parity check
matrix, making up the matrix **B**, are also part of the
representation, but are not written to ` gen-file`, since
they can be obtained from

A *sparse* representation consists of sparse representations
of the **L** and **U** matrices, whose product is **A**, the
first *M* columns of the parity check matrix (whose columns and
rows may both have been reordered). The matrix **B**, consisting
of the remaining columns of the parity check matrix, is also part of
the representation, but it is not written to ` gen-file`,
since it can be obtained from

If a sparse representation is chosen, arguments after
`sparse` specify what heuristic is used when reordering columns
and rows in order to try to make **L** and **U** as sparse as
possible. The default if no heuristic is specified is
`minprod`. If the ` abandon-num` and

**Example:** A dense representation of a generator matrix for the
Hamming code created by the example for `make-pchk` can be created as follows:

print-gen [ -d ]gen-file

Prints in human-readable form the representation of the generator
matrix that is stored in ` gen-file`. The

**Example:** The generator matrix for the
Hamming code created by the example for `make-gen` can be printed as follows:

Encodes message blocks of lengthencodepchk-file gen-file source-file encoded-file

A newline is output at the end of each block written to
` encoded-file`. Newlines in

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